The lectures included in this volume are given in five parts. The first part deals with the rise and fall of Buddhism in the Punjab. The second part consists of lectures on the Sants: Kabir, Ravidas and Dadu. In the third part, the lecture on the Bani of Guru Amar Das Ji shows how he reinforced and amplified Guru Nanak’s message and strengthened the institution of congregational worship and Langar. In the fourth part of the volume, consisting of four lectures, it is argued that Christian presence in the colonial Punjab enhanced concern for matters religious among all three religious communities of the Punjab, leading to socio-religious resurgence and inter-communal competition. In the fifth part it is argued that the politics of the Shiromani Akali Dal and Sant Jarnail Singh of Damdami Taksal were based on Sikh identity.